In this period, states Samuel, emerged the Brahmana and Aranyaka layers of Vedic texts, which merged into the earliest Upanishads.  India is a major economy, member of G4, has world's third highest military budget and exerts strong cultural and political influence over the region. Despite falling birthrates in the country, India is expected to overtake China in population by 2028. India's sustained democratic freedoms are unique among the world's newer establishments. Afghanistan has been suffering from one of the most unstable regimes on earth as a result of multiple foreign invasions, civil wars, revolutions and terrorist groups.  In the Deccan region, the Hindu kingdom Vijayanagara Empire came to power in 1336 and remained in power through the 16th century, after which it too was reconquered and absorbed into the Mughal Empire. The prevalence of underweight children in India is among the highest in the world and is nearly double that of Sub Saharan Africa with dire consequences for mobility, mortality, productivity, and economic growth. Bhutan, Maldives and Sri Lanka have the lowest number of people below the poverty line, with 2.4%, 1.5% and 4.1% respectively. Countries of Southeast Asia: Thailand, Vietnam, Singapore, Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, East Timor, Brunei, Cambodia and Laos. The spoken language is similar, but it is written in three scripts. It is one of the emerging and growth-leading economies of the world, and It is also listed among the Next Eleven countries.  Much of the region consists of a peninsula in south-central Asia, rather resembling a diamond which is delineated by the Himalayas on the north, the Hindu Kush in the west, and the Arakanese in the east, and which extends southward into the Indian Ocean with the Arabian Sea to the southwest and the Bay of Bengal to the southeast. Later Sindh, Balochistan, and parts of the Punjab region saw conquest by the Arab caliphates along with an influx of Muslims from Persia and Central Asia, which resulted in spread of both Shia and Sunni Islam in parts of northwestern region of South Asia. The precarious security situation in Afghanistan is a big barrier in rolling out education programmes on a national scale. This geological region largely includes Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. , The major stock exchanges in the region are Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) with market Capitalization of $2.298 trillion (11th largest in the world), National Stock Exchange of India (NSE) with market capitalization of $2.273 trillion (12th largest in the world), Dhaka Stock Exchange (DSE) and Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX) with market capitalization of $72 billion. The military rule and the unstable government in Pakistan have become a concern for the South Asian region. ", "A Balancing Act: The Role of Middle Powers in Contemporary Diplomacy", "SAARC: Origin, Growth, Potential and Achievements", "Realizing the Promise of Regional Trade in South Asia", "The Global Populist Surge Is More than Just a Western Story—Just Look at Asia", "Early Sanskritization: Origin and Development of the Kuru state", South Asia Subregional Economic Cooperation, Lower Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests, Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=South_Asia&oldid=1017444152, Wikipedia pending changes protected pages, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles with failed verification from June 2020, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The northern Indian edge and northern Pakistani uplands have a dry subtropical, The far south of India and southwest Sri Lanka have an. Nepal has been experiencing turbulence in government and economy for many years and is currently working through challenges surrounding the state’s 2008 shift to a federal style of government.  With Yugoslavia, India found Non-Aligned Movement but later entered an agreement with former Soviet Union following western support for Pakistan.  The similar program of Columbia University includes Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, the Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka in their study and excludes Burma. , According to the World Bank, 70% of the South Asian population and about 75% of South Asia's poor live in rural areas and most rely on agriculture for their livelihood according to the UN's Food and Agricultural Organisation. Southeast Asia (or Southeastern Asia) is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia. What countries are in Southeast Asia? The tip of the Indian Peninsula had the highest quality pearls. Subsequently, under the influence of Muslim rulers of the Islamic sultanates and the Mughal Empire, Islam spread in South Asia. In the current economic climate, Nepal is suffering from the lack of influx of tourism dollars as well as increased prices for essential items. Bangladesh (two million) and Pakistan (1.8 million) stood at distant second and third positions in the region. , South Asia is home to some of the most populated urban areas in the world.  A sophisticated and technologically advanced urban culture developed in the Mature Harappan period, from 2600 to 1900 BCE. National Responses to Covid-19 in Southeast Asia Brunei: Brunei has successfully contained the spread of Covid-19 and has begun opening travel corridors with other countries in Southeast Asia. Pakistan has an economy of ($314 billion) and ranks 5th in GDP per capita in the region. The Hindus, Buddhists, Jains, Sikhs and Christians are concentrated in India, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Bhutan, while the Muslims are concentrated in Afghanistan (99%), Bangladesh (90%), Pakistan (96%) and Maldives (100%). Chapman, Graham P. & Baker, Kathleen M., eds. Alberts, Irving, T., .  According to historians Sugata Bose and Ayesha Jalal, the Indian subcontinent has come to be known as South Asia "in more recent and neutral parlance. EEZ+TIA is exclusive economic zone (EEZ) plus total internal area (TIA) which includes land and internal waters. Afghanistan is a landlocked country in South Asia, with a rich cultural history despite being nearly constantly embroiled in conflict. , According to UNICEF, girls face incredible hurdles to pursue their education in the region, while UNESCO estimated in 2005 that 24 million girls of primary-school age in the region were not receiving any formal education.  Classical Hindu and Sramanic (particularly Buddhist) ideas spread within South Asia, as well outside South Asia. Southeast Asia includes: Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma), Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Timor-Leste (East Timor), and Vietnam. After the death of Muhammad bin Tughlaq, the Bengal Sultanate came to power in 1352 CE, as the Delhi Sultanate began disintegrating. , About 1526, the Punjab governor Dawlat Khan Lodī reached out to the Mughal Babur and invited him to attack Delhi Sultanate. Bhutan with only one university and Maldives with none hardly had between them about 7000 students in higher education in 2011. South Asia's northern, eastern, and western boundaries vary based on definitions used, while the Indian Ocean is the southern periphery.  The population of South Asia is about 1.891 billion or about one-fourth of the world's population, making it both the most populous and the most densely populated geographical region in the world. , According to Saul Cohen, early colonial era strategists treated South Asia with East Asia, but in reality, the South Asia region excluding Afghanistan is a distinct geopolitical region separated from other nearby geostrategic realms, one that is geographically diverse. , Bangladesh and Pakistan are middle powers with sizeable populations and economies with significant impact on regional politics. , According to UNESCO, 241 million children between six and fourteen years or 81 percent of the total were not learning in Southern and Central Asia in 2017. The Indian Plate includes most of South Asia, forming a land mass which extends from the Himalayas into a portion of the basin under the Indian Ocean, including parts of South China and Eastern Indonesia, as well as Kunlun and Karakoram ranges, and extending up to but not including Ladakh, Kohistan, the Hindu Kush range and Balochistan. 80% of Indians are Hindu, however, all religions can be found in India. Modern definitions of South Asia are consistent in including Afghanistan, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan and Maldives as the constituent countries.  Beyond the core territories of the British Raj or the British Indian Empire, there is a high degree of variation as to which other countries are included in South Asia. It includes the countries of Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Sri Lanka; Afghanistan and the Maldives are often considered part of South Asia as well. GDP per capita (current US$) - East Asia & Pacific, South Asia, Europe & Central Asia from The World Bank: Data Learn how the World Bank Group is helping countries with COVID-19 (coronavirus). In terms of territory, Asia is the largest region in the world. , Increasing urbanisation of India between 800 and 400 BCE, and possibly the spread of urban diseases, contributed to the rise of ascetic movements and of new ideas which challenged the orthodox Brahmanism.  Two of the religious leaders of Sikhism, Guru Arjan and Guru Tegh Bahadur were arrested under orders of the Mughal emperors and were asked to convert to Islam, and were executed when they refused.  The Mughal Empire was marked by a period of artistic exchanges and a Central Asian and South Asian architecture synthesis, with remarkable buildings such as the Taj Mahal. To the south, the Indian Ocean provides a border. It is also the most populous, with China and India leading the way.  In the past, a lack of a coherent definition for South Asia resulted in a lack of academic studies, along with a lack of interest for such studies. The Bengal Sultanate remained in power through the early 16th century.  The confusion existed also because of the lack of a clear boundary – geographically, geopolitical, socio-culturally, economically or historically – between South Asia and other parts of Asia, especially the Middle East and Southeast Asia. Countries of South Asia . Indias population growth rate is 1.2% annually with a life expectancy of 66 years. In the summer the low pressures are centered over the Indus-Gangetic Plain and high wind from the Indian Ocean blows towards the center. Bhutan is a country with a fascinating history and rich cultural roots. It also splits the countries into advanced economies and emerging economies, with Singapore the only country in the region to be considered as an advanced economy. The country as a whole is suffering extensively from the pandemic, and the economic outlook is in flux and currently unpredictable. The frontier of Greater South Asia, states Cutler, between 2001 and 2006 has been geopolitically extended to eastern Iran and western Afghanistan in the west, and in the north to northeastern Iran, northern Afghanistan, and southern Uzbekistan. It has the world's 33rd largest GDP in nominal terms and is the 27th largest by purchasing power adjusted exchange rates ($1.015 trillion). Maritime trading between South Asia and European merchants began after the Portuguese explorer Vasco de Gama returned to Europe. , Indian religions are the religions that originated in the India; namely Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism. As of 2011, 21.9% of India's population lives below the poverty line, compared to 41.6% in 2005. It regards itself as a link between Central Asia and South Asia. Afghanistan is considered to be part of Central Asia. J. Buddhist, Hindu and Sikh temples were desecrated. This list of Southeast Asian countries is alphabetical.  The economic developments on South Asia waved the period of proto-industrialization. , According to Robert M. Cutler – a scholar of Political Science at Carleton University, the terms South Asia, Southwest Asia, and Central Asia are distinct, but the confusion and disagreements have arisen due to the geopolitical movement to enlarge these regions into Greater South Asia, Greater Southwest Asia, and Greater Central Asia. This list includes dependent territories within their sovereign states (including uninhabited territories), but does not include claims on Antarctica. It was once a small continent before colliding with the Eurasian Plate about 50–55 million years ago and giving birth to the Himalayan range and the Tibetan plateau.  According to anthropologist Possehl, the Indus Valley Civilization provides a logical, if somewhat arbitrary, starting point for South Asian religions, but these links from the Indus religion to later-day South Asian traditions are subject to scholarly dispute. I.B. Under Aurangzeb's rule, South Asia reached its zenith, becoming the world's largest economy and biggest manufacturing power, estimated over 25% of world GDP, a value higher than China's and entire Western Europe's one. Maldives is a unitary presidential republic with Sunni Islam strictly as the state religion. , The larger and poorer countries in the region, like India and Bangladesh, struggle financially to get sufficient resources to sustain an education system required for their vast populations, with an added challenge of getting large numbers of out-of-school children enrolled into schools. , In 2010, South Asia had the world's largest populations of Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs, Jains and Zoroastrians. The capital city and most populous area in Afghanistan is Kabul, the two official languages are Pashto and Dari, and the currency is an Afghani (not to be confused with Afghans, which is the name for the people of Afghanistan).  The Theravada school spread south from India in the 3rd century BCE, to Sri Lanka, later to Southeast Asia. Illiteracy in villages has been found to be one of the major issues that need more government attention. Out of 22 appointed Pakistani Prime ministers, none has been able to complete a full term in office.  Mahmud of Ghazni raided the treasuries but retracted each time, only extending Islamic rule into western Punjab. Nepal was the last Hindu state in world before becoming a secular democratic republic in 2008. , The Mughal Empire continued its wars of expansion after Babur's death. Valentin Semenovich Burtman & Peter Hale Molnar.  By 962 CE, Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms in South Asia were under a wave of raids from Muslim armies from Central Asia. The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is an economic cooperation organisation in the region which was established in 1985 and includes all eight nations comprising South Asia. South Asia gdp per capita for 2019 was $1,957, a 3.03% increase from 2018. The total land area is 6,400,127 Km2 (2,471,102 sq.  India has been facing notable internal religious conflicts and separatism however consistently becoming more and more stable with time. , The World Bank and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) recognizes the eight SAARC countries as South Asia, The Hirschman–Herfindahl index of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific for the region excludes Afghanistan from South Asia. , With about 21 million students in 700 universities and 40 thousand colleges India had the one of the largest higher education systems in the world in 2011, accounting for 86 percent of all higher-level students in South Asia. In Nepal, the government has struggled to come in the side of democracy, and it only showed signs in the recent past, basically in the 21st century, to support the democratic system. With most populous functional democracy in world and world's longest written constitution, India has been stably sustaining the political system it adopted in 1950 with no regime change except that by a democratic election. Its primary sources of profit are agriculture (including tea and rice), textiles and apparel, and tea export. Southeast Asia has an area of approximately 4,000,000 km² (1.6 million square miles). C. E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W. P. Heinrichs and C. Pellat, (Brill, 1993), C.E.  The region may also include the disputed territory of Aksai Chin, which was part of the British Indian princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, now administered as part of the Chinese autonomous region of Xinjiang but also claimed by India. Pakistan is a federal parliamentary Islamic republic and was the world's first country to adopt Islamic republic system to modify its republican status under its otherwise secular constitution in 1956. India has been dominant geopolitical power in the region and alone accounts for most part of the landmass, population, economy and military expenditure in the region. , In South Asia, classrooms are teacher-centred and rote-based, while children are often subjected to corporal punishment and discrimination.  The Devanagari script is also used for classical Sanskrit texts.  The United Nations Statistics Division's scheme of sub-regions, for statistical purpose, includes Iran along with all eight members of the SAARC as part of Southern Asia. Economic data is sourced from the International Monetary Fund, current as of April 2017, and is given in US dollars. Hinduism comes in a far second for religious practice in Bangladesh with under 10% of the population identifying as Hindu. In the east, the Bengal region was split into Muslim East Bengal and Hindu West Bengal, by the colonial British empire, in the early 1900s, a split that was reversed.  Two monsoon systems exist in the region:, The warmest period of the year precedes the monsoon season (March to mid June). The gross enrolment ratio in 2011 ranged from about 10 percent in Pakistan and Afghanistan to above 20 percent in India, much below the global average of 31 percent.  Amid the Indo-Pakistani war of 1971, US sent its USS Enterprise to the Indian Ocean what was perceived as a nuclear threat by India. Afghanistan is, however, considered by some to be a part of Central Asia, Western Asia, or the Middle East. GDP per capita in Pakistan in 2019 is $1,285 USD - putting it in the range of developing economies. , Children's education in the region is also adversely affected by natural and human-made crises including natural hazards, political instability, rising extremism and civil strife that makes it difficult to deliver educational services. Later, the Maurya Empire extended over much of South Asia in the 3rd century BCE. India has lifted the most people in the region above the poverty line between 2008 and 2011, around 140 million. GDP per capita in the Maldives is strong, coming in at $11,890 in 2018. 8 countries and one territory 1,684,603,229 inhabitants 5,185,469 sq km 0.00 inhabitants/sq km population evolution. Other religions found in the country are Hinduism, Islam, and Christianity.  By about 1200 BCE, the Vedic culture and agrarian lifestyle was established in the northwest and northern Gangetic plain of South Asia. , Most of this region is resting on the Indian Plate, the northerly portion of the Indo-Australian Plate, separated from the rest of the Eurasian Plate.  The earliest prehistoric culture have roots in the mesolithic sites as evidenced by the rock paintings of Bhimbetka rock shelters dating to a period of 30,000 BCE or older,[note 4] as well as neolithic times. , The modern history period of South Asia, that is 16th-century onwards, witnessed the start of the Central Asian dynasty named the Mughals, with Turkish-Mongol roots and Sunni Islam theology.